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The Oasis of Learning Upper and Lower Egypt
Geography
1.1  The River Nile
1.2  Upper and Lower Egypt
1.2.1  Why is Upper Egypt at the bottom of the map?
1.3  Nubia
 
Amenophis III

Ask Amenophis:

  Is the Nile the largest river in the world?  
  What parts of the body were removed before mummification?  
  In which part of Egypt did papyrus grow?  
Egyptians thought of their country as the union of "The Two Lands": Upper and Lower Egypt. Upper and Lower Egypt differ in many ways.

Lower Egypt is the northern part of the country, bordering on the sea. The Nile splits into several branches and forms a great V-shape called the Delta. Lower Egypt is the wetter and more fertile part of the country. Papyrus grew here.

Upper Egypt is the southern part of the country, bordering on Nubia. It is the drier and more mountainous part and the desert comes closer to the river. Papyrus did not grow here.

The two parts of Egypt are also very much alike. The people were the same, they spoke the same language (although they may have pronounced it a little differently), and worshiped the same gods.

We have no real archaeological or historical evidence that Upper and Lower Egypt were ever really two separate countries, but the Egyptians always thought of them that way.